Bohumín (current Starý Bohumín and Polish Chałupki) was established in the area of the Ratibořské principality in 1256. A castle, called Barudswerde, was founded on the left banks of the Odra (current Chałupki), and a village, later a town (currently Starý Bohumín), was established on the right bank of the river. The owners of the manor changed several times, the most successful of them were from the bank family of Henckel from Donnersmarck (their tomb from 1752 is located in the parish garden). During their reign in 1742 Bohumín was divided based on the Peace of Vratislav, its part located on the left bank (the castle and suburbs) were allocated to Prussia, and the town on the right bank remained a part of Hapsburg Silesia. Thus Bohumín became a town without a manor, which remained in Prussia. All owners of the manor lived in the castle that is currently located in Poland and used as a hotel. As a result of the division, one and a half million Silesians, one hundred towns and five thousand villages were allocated to Prussia and only one eighth was left to Maria Therese – the region of Těšín, parts of the regions of Bohumín, Opava, Krnov and Kladsko.
The family of Henckel sold the Austrian part of the manor of Bohumín to Erdmann Guslar of Komorno, his heirs bought two houses in the eastern front of the square in Bohumín (No. 7 and 8) in 1817 and rebuilt them into their residence, called “the castle”. In 1857 Leopold Heydenbrand, another owner of the large estate, bought neighbouring house No. 9 as well and rebuilt all the houses into a late classicist two-storey building which, however, unlike most manors, remained to be incorporated in the neighbouring houses. In 1879 the castle with the large estate of Bohumín was bought by count Jindřich Larisch-Monnich. The castle was not a manor anymore, it was changed into offices and flats for his employees. In 1945 it was confiscated and became the property of the municipality, used for similar purposes. Later a nursing home was built there, whose architecture, unfortunately, does not suite the site. Currently there is the local post office as well.
The first bridge over the Odra was built in the 15th century. After the division of the manor into the Prussian and Austrian parts, the bridge lost its importance and as it was not repaired, it had to be pulled down. In 1838 a ferry was established in that place. When the future railway was surveyed, the residents of Starý Bohumín opposed against a railway in their area, which turned out to be fateful for further development of the town. The town gradually became less important than it was in the past. In conjunction with the construction of a railway, development of industries and traffic, it was obvious that a bridge over the Odra is urgently needed. In 1898 the foundation stone was laid. The construction was finished next year. A railway bridge was built in 1849.
Published / updated: 1.6.2006
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